It is the second car designed to F1's new rules to be revealed, after the 2017 Williams broke cover on Friday.
The Swiss outfit, which finished 10th in the constructors' championship last year, will unveil its new car in full on February 22 during a filming day at Barcelona.
Marcus Ericsson and Pascal Wehrlein will be the team's drivers, though Antonio Giovinazzi will fulfil testing duties for the injured Wehrlein at the first test, which starts on February 27.
The C36 features a reshaped rear wing, similar to that of the Williams FW40, and a thumb-tip nose design at the front of the car.
There are only a handful of sponsors while the car sports an anniversary logo on its engine cover to mark Sauber's 25th season in F1.
Sauber ran its 2015-spec car at the opening four-day test last year, with its '16 design not arriving until the second test, after having to adjust plans based on the late change to the F1 calendar.
Team principal Monica Kaltenborn is excited about the future and has set a target of returning to the midfield, having finished 10th in the constructors' championship last year.
"Together with Longbow Finance we have great opportunites to be competitive again and to return to previous successes in Formula 1," she said.
"We want to position ourselves with a new approach and we have already taken the first steps in order to build a solid foundation for the future.
"We clearly have to improve.
"With the Sauber C36-Ferrari we have a solid basis as well as the resources to further develop through the season.
"This will be important to establish in midfield."
New technical director Jorg Zander said the team "put greater emphasis on aerodynamic stability as opposed to maximising downforce" with the C36.
Zander, who joins from Audi ahead of this season, added that the decision to run a year-old Ferrari engine gave Sauber a solid foundation as it is "a tried and tested system with higher durability to begin with.
"Being able to get started early and defining the engine environment was an advantage because the team was familiar with the engine and the transmission as well as the cooling requirements the engine entailed."